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Raport dobrych praktyk – eCall

Podczas odbywającego się  w Brukseli III spotkania Imobility (4 czerwca br.), opracowano raport dobrych praktyk w zakresie przygotowań do wdrożenia ogólnoeuropejskiego systemu eCall, bazującego na numerze alarmowym 112. W spotkaniu wzięli udział przedstawiciele stowarzyszeń ITS, instytucji badawczych oraz członków Komisji Europejskiej DG CONNECT oraz DG MOVE, przedstawicielem ITS POLSKA na spotkaniu był Krzysztof Modelewski. Głównymi tematami omawianymi w ramach spotkania były kwestie finansowania nowych projektów ITS, zmiany struktur organizacyjnych Komisji Europejskiej  oraz implementacja systemu eCall w poszczególnych krajach członkowskich, gdyż w wielu z nich trwają intensywne przygotowania do wdrożenia systemu powiadamiania  o wypadkach. Poniżej przestawiamy raport z tego spotkania.

The purpose of this document is to initiate debate and elicit views on what Members States would view as elements of “Good Practice” that they would require in terms of the preparation for the deployment of Pan European eCall based on 112.
The responses from this document will form the basis of an iCar Support deliverable on eCall best practice. This deliverable will be submitted in 2012 as HeERO 1 concludes. However the level of enquiry and interest in eCall has led to the production of this paper at an earlier stage.
To assist in gaining the views of Member States to the information contained in the report, space has been made available in the body of the report to allow for responses.
The deployment of Pan European eCall based on 112 forms part of the directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport.
A legislative time timetable has been drawn up with a target set for the implementation of eCall for all new (new) type approved vehicles by the end of 2015.
Since the beginning of eCall activities, which started at the end of 2002 through the establishment of the eSafety Forum Working Group DG eCall, significant progress has been made in the definition and specification of the public eCall service.
The most important results have been achieved in the standardisation area, where the CEN TC 278 WG 15 has finalised the standards for the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) content, the pan-European eCall operating requirements and the eCall high level application protocols.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project has specified the eCall service requirements, the data transmission protocols and eCall discriminator, or eCall flag, as well as the in-band modem used to transfer the MSD from the vehicle to the PSAP.
Important progress has been made in terms of Member States and eCall stakeholders’ commitment. The Memorandum of Understanding prepared by DG Connect (Formerly INFSO)has currently been signed by 22 Member States (+ 2 Member States who signed a formal Letter of Support), 5 Associated Countries and more than 100 public and private organisations, including representatives of all stakeholders in the eCall rescue chain. The number of signatories has clearly reached a critical mass which justifies and supports the implementation of the service at Pan-European level, which will be based on 112.

Figure 1 Member State involvement in eCall
The automotive manufacturers, after the negotiations held by the EC in 2008 with their representatives ACEA, JAMA and KAMA, confirmed their commitment to eCall and agreed to offer eCall as an option for new-type approved vehicles of certain categories three years after approval of all relevant standards provided that the Members States update their PSAPs infrastructure to handle the eCalls. The automotive industry also considers eCall as an opportunity to offer additional added-value services by using the eCall platform.
The PSAP representatives have also been very active in the expert groups defining the eCall specifications, which have been reported to the different standardisation groups. Their specific need to extract the information included in the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) mentioned in the eCall MSD has been addressed by the VIN Decoder project, which developed VIN decoder software and tested it successfully against VIN information from 20 OEMs. The use of the EUCARIS network for providing the vehicle information has been also identified as a feasible method of providing data of vehicles from MS outside that where the eCall was generated.
At the beginning of 2009, the renewed commitment of all eCall stakeholders brought about the launch of the European eCall Implementation Platform (EeIP). This coordination body brought together representatives of the European Commission, Member States, industry, and other major eCall players. It aims at synchronising the platform members’ activities that would accelerate the deployment of eCall at National and European level.
Concerning the technical feasibility of the service, eCall has already been successfully demonstrated in different national pilots and in demonstrations which took place Nationally or at European events. The technologies underpinning this service are mature for deployment and industry stakeholders clearly expressed their willingness to start the service pre-deployment phase. This was recognised with the CIP Type A project HeERO which is the pre-deployment activity for eCall across 9 MS. This will be followed in 2013 with HeERO 2 with a further 6 pilot sites plus 3 additional MS who will upgrade their infrastructure at their own cost but within the time frame of HeERO 2.
The 2010/40/EU Directive (‘ITS Directive’) adopted in July 2010 and defined as a priority area for the harmonised provision of an interoperable EU-wide eCall.
GSM Europe has signed the eCall MoU in 2010, showing the mobile network operators commitment to support the implementation of the service. In September 2011, the European Commission adopted a Recommendation addressing the EU Member States and asking them to call on the mobile network operators to set up their networks in a way that they can correctly transmit automatic 112 emergency calls generated by cars (‘eCalls’), as a first step of a legislative process. On the same day, the European Commission published an eCall Impact Assessment, whose conclusion states that the mandatory introduction of eCall was the only way to bring eCalls benefits to all citizens.
eCall Architecture
The eCall chain consists of 3 core elements
1. In Vehicle System (IVS)
2. Mobile network provision (MNO)
3. Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)

Figure 2 eCall architecture
Assessment of the progress of the 3 defined elements of the chain.
The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and the relevant suppliers to this industry (Tier 1 and 2 suppliers) are already negotiating contract for the supply of eCall devices (IVS) for new vehicles, as the automotive industry requires a lead in time of about 3 years for changes to equipment in a vehicle. The IVS system will be subject to an amendment to type approval legislation, which will ensure that all new (new) type approved vehicle i.e. New models not just new vehicles, will have eCall fitted by the end of 2015. It is the author’s view that this is not an area that Member States need to deal with.
iCar Observer Comment
Mobile Network Operators. At a strategic level the association for mobile network operators GSMA are committed to the principle of eCall. They are signatures’ to the eCall memorandum of understanding. At a MS level however the view is more fragmented. The European Commission DG Connect initiated a request for a status update for all MS on the preparedness of each mobile network within each MS for eCall. To date this picture is not complete. The author would suggest that this is an area of focus for all MS to establish the status of each mobile network in each MS.
That this is an area where MS who are Pilot Sites for eCall can provide assistance on what should be expected by a MS in the provision of the relevant technology by a mobile network operator for the successful implementation of eCall in that MS.
iCar Observer Comment
Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). This particular part of the architecture for eCall where there is the greatest variability, and as a consequence the area where the greatest assistance could be required. As with the mobile network operators, Member States were required to provide an inventory as to the status of each MS PSAP in preparation for eCall. Currently there are a significant MS that have failed to respond. This has resulted in an incomplete picture for each MS regarding:
• Existing PSAP architecture
• Current technology Status
• Political decisions relating to eCall implementation in respect of eCall handling
o Equip all PSAPs
o Super PSAP
o eCall Centre
There has been a great deal of valuable work undertaken by DG Move who has facilitated the eCall Experts Group.
This group have been charged with looking at the issues surrounding the implementation of eCall. To date the major themes coming from this group centre on:
• Choice of architecture according to strategic decision
• System upgrade according to architecture selection
• System integration
• Potential cost
The HeERO projects will have the ability to take information from 15 Pilot Sites plus another 3 Associate Pilot Sites. The result is that all types of potential architecture are dealt with in the project, the effect of new technology fitted how and when and what measures were required for integration.
The HeERO projects can distil the best approach to the necessary upgrade required to be able to handle eCall within the stated time frame set by the European Commission.
Within the PSAP one of the critical functions is the handling of the 112 call by the call taker. Generally these staff are highly trained and used to dealing with emergency situations. However the reception of eCall be different, as there are two different modes of activation
1. Automated eCall, this is a machine to machine function, there is no human intervention until the PSAP call taker picks up the call and speaks to the vehicle occupant. The status of this call in 112 terms is unique, as the decision process behind the activation has been decided on a set of predetermined values. There is no human thought process involved. It is incumbent on the PSAP call operators to understand the value in this activation, in that in the balance of probabilities this is a real event, whether you can speak to the vehicle occupants or not, as the triggering thresholds mean that something significant has happened to the vehicle which will require the intervention of the emergency services.
2. Manual Activation. This is an eCall solely under the control of a human decision process. The possibility for a false call is at a similar level as that of a mobile phone handset. However it should be regarded as a genuine call unless there are contradictions. The experience of HeERO will be invaluable in providing guidance for PSAP call takers.
It should be remembered that in either mode the 112 call is accompanied by the minimum set of data (MSD). The MSD once decoded will provide
• Message Type
o Automatic
o Manual
• Control Type
o Emergency
o Test
• Vehicle Identification (VIN number)
• Vehicle propulsion type
• Time Stamp (Time and Date)
• Vehicle Current location
• Vehicle Heading
• Vehicle recent locations (Last 3 positions)
• Number of passengers (number of belted seats provided)
iCar Observer Comment
As can be seen the level of information in respect of any emergency situation is considerable. The task is to provide train to PSAP staff as to the benefits of this information and how it can be used and how to interpret it, e.g. look at the vehicle heading and position, does it accord with the last 3 positions or has the vehicle crossed over the road and now left the road.
HeERO has now formulated a generic training manual for eCall and then a specific manual for each Pilot Site.
Sum Up In producing this document, the aim is for MS eCall observers to establish what areas of more detailed information they require as a MS to ensure that in the process of eCall implementation, they have sufficient information to enable informed decisions to be made relating to this process, and the staff involved have the appropriate training.